What is a root canal ?

Root canal therapy refers to the process where a dentist treats the interior aspects of a tooth, specifically, that space occupied by its "pulp tissue.“
Pulp tissue contains nerve fibers, it is also composed of arteries, veins, lymph vessels, and connective tissue.

Teeth are not solid objects. Inside every tooth there lies a hollow space that contains its nerve tissue. Dentists use the following terms to refer to various portions of this nerve space:
A) The pulp chamber.
This is the hollow area that lies, more or less, in the center of the tooth's crown (that part of the tooth positioned above its gum line).

B) The root canals.
A tooth's root canals run from the apex (tip) of its root up to its pulp chamber. 
The layout of the nerve space inside different types of teeth is quite different.
Teeth always have just one pulp chamber but the number of individual root canals that they have can vary widely. Every tooth will have at least one root, and some have 2, 3 or possibly more.

FYI: What does the number of root canals mean to you?

The number of canals that a tooth has will affect you, the patient, in the following ways:
The cost of root canal treatment is typically based on the number of individual canals that are treated. The greater the number, the higher the cost.
Treatment time is affected by the number of canals being treated. It is more time consuming for a dentist

Why do we need Root Canal Treatment?

If the nerve gets inflamed the root canal treatment is necessary to save the tooth. The most common reason for the nerve infection (pulpit) is untreated caries reaching the pulp chamber. Once the caries reaches the nerve, root canal treatment becomes necessary. Occasionally trauma or severe gum disease can cause nerve damage as well. Pulpit can cause unbearable pain, hardly controllable by even the strongest painkillers. Pain would increase during the night hours. Hot and cold would increase pain, and it would last for some time. If left untreated the nerve dies and the inflammation spreads thru the apex into surrounding bone causing the inflammation there and leading to periapical abscess. As the abscess develops, it dissolves bone around the apex of the tooth substituting it with soft tissue. It is like a sac with pus growing and “eating” the bone. Patients may feel pain biting on the tooth. Swelling develops. Left untreated these infections will continue to spread, causing more and more complication, sometimes very serious and life threatening. In many cases, patients may not feel pain, or pain may be of short duration not causing real problems. The lack of pain does not mean that there is no need for the root canal.

Root Canal Re-treatment

Do Root Canals always work? Unfortunately not. The success rate for the root canal treatment according to different studies is 92-96%. Sometimes root canal failures can be attributed to poorly sealed canals, but some times x-ray shows perfectly sealed canal and the periapical infection is still there. What are the options if endodonticly treated tooth has the infection? There are few procedures, which could be done to save the tooth.
The most conservative one would be a Root Canal Re-Treatment procedure. During this procedure, the doctor will remove any restorations the tooth may have to gain access to the pulp chamber, remove all old filling material from the canals, and do the root canal treatment from scratch as described before. If successful, the periapical infection seen on the x-rays will start to disappear. The principle is to eliminate the cause, and the immune system does the rest. The images of x-ray show huge infection around the roots of previously endodonticly treated tooth almost disappear in ten weeks after

In our polyclinic we use the most refined techniques and a high new equipment used worldwide which can help us to deal with most delicate cases that can not be done with old way technique. 
Below we will see some of this equipment:

ELECTRONIC APEX LOCATOR: to take the working length of the canal electronicapexlocator
ROTARY INSTRUMENTS : New instruments for the preparation and shaping of the canal  rotary-instruments
X-SMART MOTOR: FOR THE PREPARATION OF THE CANAL with the rotary instruments  xsmart-motor
-the system B: for the obturation of the canal  thesysb
SYSTEM B:2ND PART  system-b2
 ULTRASONIC INSTRUMENTS  ultrasonic-instruments

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